Hon. World History Weeks of Mar. 5-9,12-16,19-23,26 (unit 4)

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Honors World History | Posted on March 2, 2018

Unit 4 European & Asian Middle Ages, Renaissance & Reformation ( Georgia Standards of Excellence Social Studies 7,9,11) Ch. 13,14,17,19, and sect. 4 of Ch. 12

Quiz yourself and study for Test Unit 4 with these Trivia Power Points: Middle Ages Trivia-1cb7awx and Renaissance Trivia-21nrobg

Read Incantation, out of class reading book. First quiz March 15 over Part 1

Quizzes and Test Dates for Unit 4

  1. Quiz Africa Early Kingdoms March 7
  2. Quiz Mesoamerican Cultures March 8
  3. Quiz Feudalism/Manorialism March 13
  4. Incantation pt. I March 15
  5. Biographies Quiz
  6. Incantation pt. II March 22
  7. Unit 4 Assessment March 23

Monday March 5  Bring Text Book

LG: Learn about the early kingdoms of Africa.

  1. Notes on early kingdoms
  2. Read about Mansa Musa’s Hajj
  3. Complete Map of Early African Societies and chart

Tuesday March 6

LG: Learn about the development of Mesoamerican Cultures.

  1. Notes on Mesoamerican cultures
  2. Web quest on Aztec, Maya, and Incan cultures Aztec Maya Inca Webquest-23soraj

Wednesday March 7

LG: Learn about the beginning of the Middle Ages- Charlemagne and the Feudal System.

  1. Quiz Africa early kingdoms
  2. Video the Dark Ages with Questions

Thursday March 8

LG: Learn about the beginning of the Middle Ages- Charlemagne and the Feudal System.

  1. Quiz Mesoamerican cultures
  2. Dark Ages video and questions

Friday March 9

LG: Learn about the beginning of the Middle Ages- Charlemagne and the Feudal System.

  1. Notes on Charlemagne
  2. Reading about Charlemagne and organizer chart to fill out
  3. Feudalism Simulation
  4. Feudalism and Manorialism  notes
  5. Feudal Pyramid questions

Monday March 12

LG: Learn about feudalism in Asia, the power of the church, and the Crusades.

  1. Notes on castles and knighthood
  2. Discuss Japan’s Feudalism, after reading article “The Four-Tiered System of Feudal Japan”
  3. Notes on the power of the church
  4. Crusades notes

Tuesday March 13 **Bring Text Book**

LG: The Crusades of Medieval Europe.

  1. Before Crusades and After crusades notes in packet
  2. Post Crusades hand out
  3. Bubonic Plague clip
  4. Get in groups and begin planning Medieval House of Horrors Projects

Wednesday March 14

LG: Research the Medieval topic your group is assigned.

  1. Discuss notes on the 100 Years War
  2. research, plan and complete for your medieval project

Thursday March 15

LG: Learn all about the excitement and horror of the medieval times through the class presentations.

  1. Medieval House of Horrors presentations.
  2. Quiz Feudalism/Manorialism
  3. High Middle Ages notes
  4. Medieval Timeline

Friday March 16

LG: Learn about the Renaissance of Europe.

  1. Quiz Incantation pt 1
  2. Read Politics in Europe handout and
  3. Discuss notes on the 100 Years War
  4. Decline of Feudalism Graphic Organizer
  5. The European Renaissance notes
  6. Biographies Activity

Monday March 19 

LG: Learn about the protestant reformation.

  1. Complete notes on Protestant Reformation
  2. Renaissance Art chart and notes 

Tuesday March 20****Bring your textbook****

LG: Learn about the Counter Reformation.

  1. Notes on the counter reformation
  2. read in your text book and answer questions about the Qing and Ming Dynasties in China Ch. 19, Sect. 2 pp. 536-541, answer questions #1-8 on p. 541; and the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan Ch. 19 Sect. 3 pp. 542-547, answer questions #1-8 on p. 547
  3. Renaissance/Reformation Map

Wednesday March 21

LG: To reflect on the differences between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

  1. Biographies Quiz
  2. Timeline on Renaissance Era
  3. Middle Ages vs. Renaissance Chart and Questions
  4. Meeting at Runnymede article and questions
  5. Wars pre printed notes

Thursday March 22

LG: Prepare for test on Middle ages, the Renaissance and Reformation.

  1. Incantation Part 2 Quiz
  2. Read an excerpt from The Prince and analyze the text by answering the questions
  3. Complete any work needed
  4. Review for test on tomorrow

Friday March 23

LG: Demonstrate your knowledge of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Reformation.

  1. Test on the Middle Ages Part 1

Monday March 26

LG; Demonstrate knowledge of the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation.

  1. Turn in unit packet
  2. Renaissance and the Reformation Test Part 2

 

Honors Economics Unit 4 plans Feb. 28-March 8

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Hon. Gov/Econ | Posted on February 26, 2018

Wednesday Feb. 28

LG: To explain the reasons for international trade, define and give examples of imports and exports, explain the significance of specialization in international trade, define absolute advantage and comparative advantage, identify countries with absolute advantage and comparative from a data set, explain the effects of absolute and comparative advantage on international trade, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to absolute and comparative advantage, and give the significance of balance of trade and balance of payment data as economic indicators.

  1. Intro to International Trade Power Point and Videos/Notes
  2. PPT/Activity absolute advantage and comparative advantage

 

Thursday March 1

LG: To explain the reasons for international trade, define and give examples of imports and exports, explain the significance of specialization in international trade, define absolute advantage and comparative advantage, identify countries with absolute advantage and comparative from a data set, explain the effects of absolute and comparative advantage on international trade, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to absolute and comparative advantage, and give the significance of balance of trade and balance of payment data as economic indicators.

  1. Quiz Absolute and Comparative Advantage
  2. Power Point notes/videos on Trade Organizations
  3. Activity- Absolute vs. Comparative Advantage or Balance of Trade vs. Balance of Payments

 

Friday March 2

LG: To explain the reasons for international trade, define and give examples of imports and exports, explain the significance of specialization in international trade, define absolute advantage and comparative advantage, identify countries with absolute advantage and comparative from a data set, explain the effects of absolute and comparative advantage on international trade, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to absolute and comparative advantage, and give the significance of balance of trade and balance of payment data as economic indicators.

 

  1. Complete Trade Org. ppt.
  2. Practice EOC
  3. Inquiry Design Model Activity NewYork_12_Free_Trade for students-1npxdlj

 

Monday March 5

LG: To explain the reasons for international trade, define and give examples of imports and exports, explain the significance of specialization in international trade, define absolute advantage and comparative advantage, identify countries with absolute advantage and comparative from a data set, explain the effects of absolute and comparative advantage on international trade, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to absolute and comparative advantage, and give the significance of balance of trade and balance of payment data as economic indicators.

  1. Quiz Trade Organizations
  2. Power Point notes on balance of payment and trade
  3. Define trade barriers
  4. Identify costs and benefits of trade barriers

 

Tuesday March 6

LG: Explain the effects of tariffs, quotas, embargoes, and subsidies on international trade, give reasons why nations impose trade barriers and restrictions on trade, cite examples of modern-day trade barriers and restrictions, explain the short and long-term advantages and disadvantages of erecting trade barriers and restrictions, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to trade barriers and restrictions, explain the reasons why nations create trading blocs such as the EU and NAFTA, and give general arguments for and against free trade.

  1. Trade Barrier PSA’s
  2. NE Quiz Ch. 10
  3. Evaluate arguments for and against free trade
  4. Power Point notes/videos on Exchange Rates

 

Wednesday March 7

LG: Explain the effects of tariffs, quotas, embargoes, and subsidies on international trade, give reasons why nations impose trade barriers and restrictions on trade, cite examples of modern-day trade barriers and restrictions, explain the short and long-term advantages and disadvantages of erecting trade barriers and restrictions, read and interpret scenarios, tables, and graphs related to trade barriers and restrictions, explain the reasons why nations create trading blocs such as the EU and NAFTA, and give general arguments for and against free trade.

 

  1. Macro Milestone quiz
  2. Quiz Exchange Rates
  3. Unit 4 Problem Set

 

Thursday March 8

LG: Show understanding of International Economics Concepts.

  1. Turn in Unit 4 Problem set
  2. Unit 4 Assessment

Honors World History Week of Feb. 12-16, 26-Mar. 2

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Honors World History | Posted on February 9, 2018

 

Monday Feb. 12

LG: Learn about the Constantinople.

  1. Constantinople Monument Projects
  2. Present projects and take notes on graphic organizer

Tuesday Feb. 13 ** Bring Text Book Today**

LG: Learn about the Byzantine Empire.

  1. Notes on the Byzantine Empire
  2. Timeline of Byz. Empire activity
  3. Byzantine Empire Map

Wednesday Feb. 14

LG: Learn about how Russia developed.

  1. Notes on early Russia.
  2. Complete Rulers of Russia Organization chart
  3. Complete Byzantine Empire map if needed

Thursday Feb. 15 ** Bring Text Book Today**

LG: Learn about the Mongols and their rise to power.

  1. View documentary “The Barbarians: The Mongols” and answer questions
  2. Complete map of the Mongols
  3. Exploring stereotypes in Aladdin

Friday Feb. 16 ** Bring Text Book Today**

LG: To learn about what was happening all around the world at the same time that Rome was building its empire.

  1. “Meanwhile Around the World …” packet

Monday Feb. 26

LG: Learn about Islam.

  1. Web Quest about Islam Guide to Islam Webquest-2ffuvb2
  2. Five Pillars of Islam activity

Tuesday Feb. 27

LG: Learn about Islam.

  1. Islamic Cultural Achievements activity
  2. Islam notes
  3. Haj video

Wednesday Feb. 28

LG: Learn about Islam.  Bring Text Book

  1. Comparing Islamic Empires Chart
  2. Comparing Islam, Judaism, and Christianity chart
  3. Quotations from the Holy Books activity
  4. Western Religions sheet

Thursday March 1

LG: Learn about Islam.

  1. Review for test over Byzantine, Russian and Islamic Empires.
  2. Complete packets as needed

Friday March 2 

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine, Russian and Islamic Empires.

  1. Turn in study guide for bonus points,
  2. Turn in unit packets
  3. Test- Byzantine, Russian and Islamic Empires.

Hon. Econ. Unit 3 Macro Feb. 7-16, 26-27

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Hon. Gov/Econ | Posted on February 6, 2018

Wednesday Feb. 7

LG: To learn about unemployment.

  1. Role play activity for unemployment

Thursday Feb. 8

LG: To learn about unemployment.

  1. present unemployment skits
  2. Notes on unemployment

Friday Feb. 9

LG: Learn about GDP and inflation.

  1. Quiz unemployment
  2. Quiz Naked Economics Ch. 6
  3. Notes on GD
  4. GDP practice
  5. notes on inflation
  6. practice inflation and GDP problems

Monday Feb. 12

LG: Learn about CPI .

  1. Quiz GDP
  2. Notes and activity on CPI

Tuesday Feb. 13

LG: Learn about the business cycle.

  1. Quiz inflation and the Business cycle
  2. Business cycle notes and activity

Wednesday Feb. 14

LG: Learn about The Federal Reserve and the Monetary Policy, taxes and the fiscal policy of government.

  1. Notes Fed. Reserve and Monetary Policy FEDERAL RESERVE MONETARY POLICY Spring 2015-1sj3xy6

Thursday Feb. 15

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Macro economics

  1. Quiz  Federal Reserve and Monetary policy
  2. notes fiscal policy and taxes TAXES AND FISCAL POLICY Spring 2015-2jjdxxr

Friday Feb. 16  ** BRING TEXTBOOKS**

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Macro economics.

  1. Quiz Fiscal Policy
  2. create “Interview a Tax” skits
  3. problem set
  4. complete vocabulary

Monday Feb. 26

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Macro economics.

  1. Check problem set
  2. Touchstones Macro Economics Quiz
  3. Present “Interview a Tax” skits

Tuesday Feb. 27

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Macro economics.

  1. Turn in vocabulary and Problem sets
  2. Macroeconomics Assessment
  3. Vocabulary International Economics

Hon. World History Jan. 26-Feb. 9

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Honors World History | Posted on January 18, 2018

 Greece and Rome Triva Review Game-1lzjpdl

Friday Jan. 26

LG: Learn about the early Aegean Civilization.

  1. Turn in Early River Valley Civilizations Choice board assignment
  2. Take notes on early Aegean civilization and the Spartans
  3. Greece: A Moment in Excellence documentary with questions

Monday Jan. 29

LG: Learn about the ancient Greeks.

  1. Notes on the Golden Age of Athens
  2. Notes on the Spartans and the Peloponnesian War
  3. Horrible Histories- Spartans
  4. Spartan and Athenian activity
  5. Ancient Greece map activity

Tuesday Jan. 30

LG: Learn about the ancient Greeks.

  1. Notes on Alexander the Great
  2. Horrible Histories-Alexander the Great
  3. The Greeks and religion hand out
  4. Ancient Greek Myths
  5. Greek City-States- unity and division

Wednesday Jan.31   ***Bring Textbook***

LG: Learn about ancient Rome.

  1. Complete Greek City-States Unity and Division
  2. Notes on Ancient Rome and the Roman Republic
  3. Caesar reading
  4. The Legend of the founding of Rome
  5. From Rome to Washington D.C. Activity

Thursday Feb. 1     ***Bring Textbook***

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Roman Achievement stations activity
  2. View Building an Empire
  3. Ancient Roman Map

Friday Feb. 2

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Notes on Punic Wars
  2. Discuss the Fall of the Roman Republic
  3. Look at rulers who followed Julius Caesar
  4. View Building an Empire- Augustus, Claudius and Nero

Monday Feb. 5

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Notes on the Roman Empire
  2. Fall of Roman Empire
  3. Roman Republic or Empire Activity
  4. View Building an Empire Vespasian and Trajan
  5. pass out study guide

Tuesday Feb. 6

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Christianity notes
  2. Fall of Rome IDM Activity
  3. Complete viewing of Building an Empire-Hadrian and Caracalla

Wednesday Feb. 7

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Quiz Ch. 6 textbook, Rome
  2. Complete Fall of Rome IDM Activity
  3. Review for Unit 2 assessment

Thursday Feb. 8

LG: Learn about the ancient Romans.

  1. Read article from The Smithsonian: “Resurrecting Pompeii” and answer questions
  2. Review for Unit 2 assessment PowerPoint

Friday Feb. 9

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Ancient Greek and Roman Cultures.

  1. Turn in packets
  2. Unit 2 Assessment

 

Hon. Econ. Unit 2 Agenda Jan. 24-Feb. 6

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Hon. Gov/Econ | Posted on January 18, 2018

Wednesday Jan. 24

LG: Define the law of demand and the law of supply. They will be able to explain the slope of the demand and supply curves using the laws of demand and supply.

  1. PowerPoint notes/videos- money, circular flow

 

Thursday Jan. 25

LG: Define the law of demand and the law of supply. They will be able to explain the slope of the demand and supply curves using the laws of demand and supply. Students will use supply and demand curves to identify and explain the equilibrium price and quantity in a market.

  1. Circular flow demonstration
  2. Quiz over money and circular flow
  3. PowerPoint notes and videos- demand

 

Friday Jan. 26

LG: Differentiate between inelastic demand and elastic demand and inelastic supply and elastic supply, read and interpret supply and demand curves, tell how price floors and price ceilings are established and their effects on markets, explain how price acts as a market incentive, and explain market competition and its effects on demand, supply, and price.

  1. Quiz over demand
  2. PowerPoint notes/video-Supply
  3. Market Game Activity

 

Monday Jan. 29

LG: Students will use supply and demand curves to identify and explain the equilibrium price and quantity in a market.

  1. Quiz on Supply
  2. notes on Equilibrium
  3. Graphing activity
  4. PowerPoint notes/video- Market Structures   

Tuesday Jan. 30

LG: Explain how the Law of Demand, the Law of Supply, prices, and profits work to determine production and distribution in a market economy.

  1. Equilibrium Quiz
  2. Quiz Naked Economics Ch. 2
  3. Check Equilibrium Activity  

 

Wednesday Jan. 31

LG: Explain how the Law of Demand, the Law of Supply, prices, and profits work to determine production and distribution in a market economy.

  1. Check homework
  2. Milestones Fundamentals Quiz
  3. PowerPoint notes/video- Market Structures market structures-2my3i91

 

Thursday Feb. 1

LG: Explain market competition and its effects on demand, supply, and price, compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship, partnerships, and corporations as forms of business organization, describe entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in a market economy including the roles, significance, and effects, describe the characteristics of different market structures including monopolies, oligopolies, monopolistic competition, and pure (perfect competition).

  1. Quiz Market Structures
  2. PowerPoint notes/video- Business Organizations  Types of Business OrganizationRZ-1ipwye5
  3. Problem set

 

Friday Feb. 2

LG: Explain market competition and its effects on demand, supply, and price, compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship, partnerships, and corporations as forms of business organization, describe entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in a market economy including the roles, significance, and effects, describe the characteristics of different market structures including monopolies, oligopolies, monopolistic competition, and pure (perfect competition).

  1. Quiz Business Organizations
  2. Problem Set

 

Monday Feb. 5

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Microeconomics.

  1. Milestone Micro Quiz
  2. Check Problem Set
  3. Work on Voc.

Tuesday  Feb. 6

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of Micro Economics.

  1. turn in vocabulary and problem set
  2. Unit 2 assessment

D-Day Trip Meeting

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Educational Spring Break /Summer Tours Trip Information | Posted on January 16, 2018

**New Meeting Date: Thursday January 25, 6 pm, Room 116**

** Due to inclement weather tonight, Monday Jan. 16, we will not be meeting to hear about the D-Day Trip at 7pm.

I will reschedule the meeting for as soon as possible.

Hon. World History Week of Jan. 8-12, 16, 22-25

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Honors World History | Posted on January 5, 2018

**New Meeting Date: Thursday January 25, 6 pm, Room 116**

 

Review for Ancient Civilizations test River Valley Civilizations Trivia Review Game-1qth2ly

Tuesday Jan. 9

LG: Learn about the early river valley civilizations: Mesopotamia.

  1. Take up syllabus
  2. ppt notes on Mesopotamia
  3. Read Excerpts from Hammurabi’s Code of Law
  4. Hammurabi’s Code: Scenario activity
  5. Begin video on Mesopotamia

Wednesday Jan. 10** Special bell schedule**

LG: Learn about the early river valley civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  1. Complete Mesopotamia video
  2. Complete ancient near east map assignment
  3. ppt notes on Egypt if time

Thursday Jan. 11 ** Special bell schedule**

LG: Learn about the early river valley civilizations: Egypt.

  1. Document analysis “The Negative Question”, answer all questions
  2. Who Killed King Tut? Activity
  3. Mummification presentation

Friday Jan. 12 

LG: Learn about the early river valley civilizations: Egypt and Indus River.

  1. PPT practice to compare Mesopotamia and Egypt
  2. View Egypt’s Quest for Immortality video and answer questions
  3. Ppt. notes on Indus River
  4. SPRITE activity for homework  Mesopotamia and Egypt Sprite Chart-27nzezu

Tuesday Jan. 16

LG: Learn about the early river valley civilizations:  Indus River.

  1. Pass out Early River Valley Civilizations: Choice Board activity Due Tuesday Jan. 23
  2. complete Indus River ppt if needed
  3. monotheism timeline activity
  4. Read and answer questions on the Vedas Translation
  5. Read about Siddhartha Gautama
  6. Receive “A Mandala of Hindu Beliefs” Activity, due Thursday cut out

Monday Jan. 22 ***Need to bring Textbook to class***

LG: To understand more about ancient Chinese cultures and land.

  1. Global Map Timeline Quiz
  2. Read primary source document: Asoka’s Rock Edicts” and answer questions
  3. Read about Ancient Indian Empires
  4. PPT on China
  5. Ancient Asia Map assignment

Tuesday Jan. 23

LG: To understand more about ancient Chinese cultures and land.

  1. Mandala due
  2. “Engineering an Empire” documentary on China and questions
  3. notes on the 100 schools of thought
  4. Chinese Philosophies: Moral Dilemmas activity

Wednesday Jan. 24  ***Need to bring Textbook to class***

LG: Wrap up Chinese cultures and review for test on Ancient River Valley Civilizations.

  1. Emperor Qin Shi Huang Di stations activity with note-taking graphic organizer
  2. Map practice- complete final map in packet to study for test mapping section
  3. Review guide- fill out in preparation for test on Ancient River Valley Civilizations- Thursday Jan. 25

Thursday Jan. 25

LG: Demonstrate understanding of ancient civilizations.

  1. Turn in unit packets- Mes./Egypt and India/China
  2. Unit 1 Assessment

Friday Jan. 26

LG: Learn about Classical Mediterranean Societies and Empires.

  1. Turn in Early River Valley Civilizations Choice Board selections

 

 

Hon. Econ. agenda Jan. 8-12, 16, 22-24

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Hon. Gov/Econ | Posted on January 5, 2018

Tuesday Jan. 9     Pick up text books at 9:20.

LG:  Understand scarcity and opportunity costs.

  1. Quiz over lecture 1 tomorrow
  2. Complete ppt #1
  3. Scarcity activity
  4. Review key concepts- Production Resources and Resource Allocation Activity
  5. Motivations that influence entrepreneurs to take risks.
  6. Four Corners Activity- Opportunity Costs

Thursday Jan. 10

LG: Compare and contrast different economic systems and explain how they answer the three basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

  1. Quiz Standard 1, lecture 1
  2. Power point notes and video clips: Economic systems lecture #2
  3. Research answers for last slide

 

Thursday Jan. 11

LG: To be able to use economic models like production possibilities curves, marginal cost/marginal benefit tables, and production graphs to identify trade-offs, opportunity cost, and rational decision making criteria.

  1. Complete Economic Systems notes
  2. PowerPoint notes/videos on production possibilities #3
  3. Production possibilities activities

Friday Jan. 12

LG: To be able to use economic models like production possibilities curves, marginal cost/marginal benefit tables, and production graphs to identify trade-offs, opportunity cost, and rational decision making criteria.

  1. Quiz Economic Systems
  2. PowerPoint notes/videos on production possibilities #3
  3. Production possibilities activities

Tuesday Jan. 16

LG: Learn about rational decision making.

  1. Quiz PPC, lecture #3
  2. Ppt notes on rational decision making and activities
  3. practice set for unit, due tomorrow

Monday Jan. 22

LG: Learn about the role of government in economics.

  1. ppt. on role of government in society.
  2. grade unit practice set
  3. Milestone Quiz Fundamentals

Tuesday Jan. 23

LG: Demonstrate knowledge of fundamental concepts in economics.

  1. turn in practice set, and vocabulary
  2. test unit 1

Wednesday Jan. 24

LG: Learn about the circular flow of resources, and basic economic principles.

  1. Read “The Soaring Cost of a simple Breath” and answer questions
  2. Circular Flow Activity 5
  3. Answer the Economics Principles Questions

 

Hon. World History Thursday and Friday Jan. 4-5

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Posted by cliftonj | Posted in Honors World History | Posted on January 3, 2018

Honors World History Syllabus s2018-2aahq4q

Thursday Jan. 4

LG: To understand expectations of class and intro into World History.

  1. Student information sheet
  2. History Quiz
  3. TRSS forms
  4. class syllabus and procedures
  5. Measuring historical time activity

Friday Jan.  5

LG: Intro into World History.

  1. TRSS forms
  2. Gather signed syllabus forms
  3. complete measuring historical time activity, if needed
  4. Key World History terms and concepts
  5. The Beginnings of Civilization notes
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