Born in Kentucky, Morgan invented a gas mask (patented 1914) that was used to protect soldiers from chlorine fumes during World War I. Morgan also received a patent (1923) for a traffic signal that featured automated STOP and GO signs. Morgan’s invention was later replaced by traffic lights

*Excerpt from, www.infoplease.com/black-scientists-inventors*

]]>

Born in Harlem, New York, Bath holds a bachelor’s degree from Hunter College and an M.D. from Howard University. She is a co-founder of the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Bath is best known for her invention of the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts

*Excerpt from, www.infoplease.com/black-scientists-inventors*

Widowed at 20, Louisiana-born Sarah Breedlove Walker supported herself and her daughter as a washerwoman. In the early 1900s she developed a hair care system and other beauty products. Her business, headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, amassed a fortune, and she became a generous patron of many black charities.

*Excerpt from, www.infoplease.com/black-scientists-inventors*

Born and raised in Brooklyn, N. Y., M.I.T graduate Aprille Ericsson was the first female (and the first African-American female) to receive a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Howard University and the first African-American female to receive a Ph.D. in engineering at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Ericsson has won many awards, including the 1997 “Women in Science and Engineering” award for the best female engineer in the federal government, and she is currently the instrument manager for a proposed mission to bring dust from the Martian lower atmosphere back to Earth.

*Excerpt from, www.infoplease.com/black-scientists-inventors*

**SP1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the relationship between**

**distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration as functions of time.**

d. Analyze and interpret data of two-dimensional motion with constant acceleration.

• Resolve position, velocity, or acceleration vectors into components (x and y, horizontal and

vertical).

• Add vectors graphically and mathematically by adding components.

• Interpret problems to show that objects moving in two dimensions have independent

motions along each coordinate axis.

• Design an experiment to investigate the projectile motion of an object by collecting and

analyzing data using kinematic equations.

• Predict and describe how changes to initial conditions affect the resulting motion.

• Calculate range and time in the air for a horizontally launched projectile.

**SP2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how forces affect the motion of**

**objects.**

a. Construct an explanation based on evidence using Newton’s Laws of how forces affect the

acceleration of a body.

• Explain and predict the motion of a body in absence of a force and when forces are applied

using Newton’s 1st Law (principle of inertia).

• Calculate the acceleration for an object using Newton’s 2nd Law, including situations where

multiple forces act together.

• Identify the pair of equal and opposite forces between two interacting bodies and relate

their magnitudes and directions using Newton’s 3rd Law.

b. Develop and use a model of a Free Body Diagram to represent the forces acting on an object

(both equilibrium and non-equilibrium).

c. Use mathematical representations to calculate magnitudes and vector components for typical

forces including gravitational force, normal force, friction forces, tension forces, and spring

forces.

d. Plan and carry out an investigation to gather evidence to identify the force or force

component responsible for causing an object to move along a circular path.

• Calculate the magnitude of a centripetal acceleration.

e. Develop and use a model to describe the mathematical relationship between mass, distance,

and force as expressed by Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation.